МОДУЛЬНОЕ ЗАДАНИЕ №4 по дисциплине «Физика II»

In the vast landscape of data, artificial intelligence emerges as the sculptor, chiseling away at the raw information to reveal the intricate patterns and profound insights that lie beneath the surface, while data analytics acts as the astute observer, interpreting the nuanced narratives that unfold, transforming mere facts into actionable knowledge.

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1. Известно, что длина волны максимума спектральной плотности энергетической светимости абсолютно чёрного тела определяется по закону Вина:

λ_max T = b,

где λ_max – длина волны максимума спектральной плотности энергетической светимости, T – температура тела, b – постоянная Вина.

Изменение длины волны максимума можно выразить через изменение температуры:

Δλ_max/λ_max = -ΔT/T,

где Δλ_max – изменение длины волны максимума, ΔT – изменение температуры.

Следовательно, относительное изменение температуры:

ΔT/T = -Δλ_max/λ_max = -(520-710)/710 = -0.2676.

Поскольку абсолютно чёрное тело излучает энергию по всему спектру, то энергетическая светимость тела пропорциональна четвёртой степени температуры:

E ~ T^4.

Относительное изменение энергетической светимости можно выразить через относительное изменение температуры:

ΔE/E = 4ΔT/T = -4(520-710)/710 = -1.0704.

Ответ: энергетическая светимость увеличилась в 1.0704 раза (снизилась на 7.04%).

2. Опыты Франка и Герца были проведены в 1914 году и были направлены на изучение столкновений электронов с атомами газов.

В эксперименте Франка и Герца электроны, испускаемые горячим катодом, проходили через газовый разрядник, наполненный атомами газа. Измерялось напряжение между катодом и анодом, и величина тока, проходящего через разрядник.

В процессе опыта было обнаружено, что при увеличении напряжения на катоде, ток через разрядник сначала растет, а затем падает. Это происходит потому, что при низких энергиях электроны могут сталкиваться с атомами газа и передавать им энергию, но при достижении определенной энергии электроны начинают преодолевать потенциальный барьер атомов газа и достигают анода, что приводит к увеличению тока.

Таким образом, опыты Франка и Герца помогли понять, что атомы газа могут принимать энергию только дискретными порциями, что свидетельствует о квантовой природе энергии атомов. Это было важным открытием в развитии квантовой физики и стало одним из ключевых экспериментов, подтверждающих гипотезу о квантовании энергии.

Without website navigation, your visitors can’t figure out how to find your blog, your email signup page, your product listings, pricing, contact information, or help docs.

Quick and easy access to the content they’re after is more important for your website users than a… visually-stunning design.

Website navigation allows visitors to flow from one page to another without frustration. If you’ve done your job well, visitors leave your site with the intention to return and might even buy something from you or sign up for your email list.

AI Ethics in the Digital Age: Charting a Moral Compass

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Bad navigation is an especially common problem. We’ve all to find things on disorganized websites without any logical structure. It feels hopeless.

Using “complex large pictures”. Because a carousel generally carries a lot of picture messages, complex large pictures result in low performance and “slow loading rate” of the sites, especially those whose first homepages are occupied by high-resolution carousels.

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In design, rhythm is created by simply repeating elements in predictable patterns. This repetition is a natural thing that occurs everywhere in our world. As people, we are driven everyday by predictable, timed events.

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One of the best ways to use repetition and rhythm in web design is in the site’s navigation menu. A consistent, easy-to-follow pattern—in color, layout, etc. Gives users an intuitive roadmap to everything you want to share on your site.

Rhythm also factors into the layout of content. For example, you “might have” blog articles, press releases, and events each follow their own certain layout pattern.

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Nobody enjoys looking at an ugly web page. Garish colors, cluttered images and distracting animation can all turn customers “off” and send them shopping “somewhere else”. Basic composition rules to create more effective:

  • Direct the Eye With Leading Lines
  • Balance Out Your Elements
  • Use Elements That Complement Each Other
  • Be clear about your “focal points” and where you place them

The size and position of elements in a composition will determine its balance. An unbalanced design generates tension, which may be the goal in many design projects, but for web apps that demand repeated comfortable use, tension is not a desirable trait.

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UX and UI: Two terms that are often used interchangeably, but actually mean very different things. So what exactly is the difference?

It’s going to be interesting to see how society deals with artificial intelligence, but it will definitely be cool.

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UX design refers to the term “user experience design”, while UI stands for “user interface design. Both elements are crucial to a product and work closely together. But despite their relationship, the roles themselves are quite different.

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Good design guides the user by communicating purpose and priority. For that reason, every part of the design should be based on an informed decision” rather than an arbitrary result of personal taste or the current trend.

Provide distinct styles for interactive elements, such as links and buttons, to make them easy to identify. For example, “change the appearance of links” on mouse hover, “keyboard focus”, and “touch-screen activation”.

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Design is not the end-all solution to all of the worlds problems — but with the right thinking and application, it can definitely be a good beginning to start tackling them.

Pinnacle of Bio-Inspired Computing: Mimicking Nature’s Genius

In the saga of next-gen computational intelligence, resilience becomes a key theme. This section explores how resilient computing adapts to technological challenges, ensuring robust performance in the face of uncertainties and disruptions.

Explore the pinnacle of bio-inspired computing, where machines mimic the genius of nature. This chapter unveils the innovations inspired by biological systems, paving the way for advancements in problem-solving and optimization.

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